By K. Hamblin
This booklet explores the adoption of 'active getting old' guidelines via EU15 international locations and the effect on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage strategies. regulations tested contain unemployment merits, lively labour industry regulations, partial pension receipt, pension rules, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Additional info for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
In addition, societal ageing is argued within EU documents to lead to a decline in the working population and thus increase pressure on pensions systems and health care (Commission of the European Communities, 1999: 6). The shift in national demographics resulting from falling fertility, increased longevity and the ‘baby boomer’ generation entering the third age have necessitated that social protection systems must become more attuned to these demands through a process of modernisation (Commission of the European Communities, 2005).
Indeed, institutions often survive due to ‘path-dependency’ in that once the die has been cast, the game must continue from there. Thus Pierson’s (2004) argument is used to elucidate institutional inertia and the notion of ‘increasing returns’ explains why nations or institutions may get ‘locked into’ certain policy paths as once they have started down a particular route, the costs of deviation may be more than continuation, thus making dramatic reform difﬁcult. Pierson argues the likelihood of change is impeded by this process and can only be achieved by three means: cumulative causes, threshold effects and causal chains.
1 They were also member states when the Lisbon strategy was implemented, including its goal of 70% employment as well as the Stockholm and Barcelona targets which relate speciﬁcally to older individuals. 3) and produce National Action Plans on the topic of employment in the hope of creating cross-national dialogue in the realm of social policy. The EU also creates directives on certain areas, such as anti-discrimination legislation, which nations are then given a ﬁxed amount of time to adopt. These directives tend to prescribe certain policy ends but leave the means to the discretion of the nation-states.