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The Prader–Willi, the Bardet–Biedl, the Laurence–Moon, the Cohen, the Boyeson, and the Wilson–Turner syndromes are all characterized by obesity as well as by other abnormalities. 10. The Prader–Willi syndrome occurs as a result of a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15. It occurs in 1/5000 to 1/10,000 live births. Individuals with this syndrome are developmentally delayed, have poor muscle tone and are growth retarded. 10 Suggested causes of obesity Mutations in genes for Leptin, leptin receptor Cholesystokinin Adipsin, adiponectin Ghrelin Tumor necrosis factor (TNFa) Neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor Adipocyte-specific transcription factor C/EBPa Agouti protein Carboxypeptidase E Phosphodiesterase β-adrenergic receptor Growth hormone receptor Glucocorticoid receptor Insulin receptor UCPs Melanocortin 3 receptor Hormonal imbalance Excess glucorticoid Excess insulin Hypothyroidism Polycystic ovary disease Other causes Injury to the brain stem or hypothalamus Social/cultural feeding behaviors Inactivity linked to overeating other behavioral features develop.

Lean body mass can also be predicted from skeletal measurements and from bone weight. 65–71 Presently, considerable effort is being expended to validate these methods because they are noninvasive and allow for the sequential determination of changes in one or more of the major body components as a result of a change in diet, activity, age, or endocrine status. In addition, these noninvasive methods could be useful in assessing population groups in relation to fat mass, bone density, or adipose tissue distribution.

Gov OMIM). Several investigators have shown that the familial trait for body fatness has a much stronger influence on body composition than environmental influences such as culture, socioeconomic status, or food-intake patterns. Stunkard and associates 39,40 as well as Bouchard and Despres 35,36 have published extensively on the responses of twins to dietary manipulation and exercise. They found that identical (monozygotic) twins are more nearly alike in these responses than are siblings or nonidentical (dizygotic) twins.

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