By Westerlund, D.
This comparative and old paintings offers wealthy fabric on faith and affliction etiologies between 5 African peoples (San, Maasai, Sukuma, Kongo and Yoruba) and discusses attainable purposes for an enormous shift from religious beings corresponding to deities to residing people like witches as brokers of disorder.
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Additional info for African Indigenous Religions and Disease Causation
In addition to hunting and ﬁshing, men are responsible for slashing and burning, various crafts and tending orchards of palm and fruit trees. Hoe cultivation is practised by women who work hard in the ﬁelds but also do the cooking and raise the children. Root crops like manioc, groundnuts, maize, bananas and vegetables are important food crops. As domestic animals, goats, sheep, fowl and dogs may be found. Pigs and tsetse-resistant cattle also provide some protein. 45 Unlike the other peoples studied here, the Kongo have a matrilineal social system.
36 Oﬀerings have been mentioned by Schebesta, Schmidt and Gusinde,37 but the great majority of scholars either ﬂatly deny that any oﬀerings are made,38 or simply do not say anything about it. As a rule, prayers are said by individuals in a non-formalized way. 40 God is not far away or indiﬀerent to humanity. Rather, he has become increasingly involved in the lives of Kung. 43 However, the evidence is too slender and the variations between diﬀerent Nharo individuals too great to warrant any far-reaching conclusions in this respect.
43 Buakasa 1973: 11; MacGaﬀey 1986: 22 f. , Janzen 1972: 12; Jacobson-Widding 1979: 23. 44 MacGaﬀey 1986: 23. ; Janzen 1978: 13; Mahaniah 1979: 212; JacobsonWidding 1979: 23 f. ethnographic background 37 obligations. As there are sub-clans, there are also sub-lineages. Leading members of a lineage may live on or near its land, but villages can have members of several descent communities. Today many of the Kongo live in urban areas. 47 MacGaﬀey, however, has also emphasized certain ‘egalitarian’ aspects and the fact that cadets sooner or later may become elders.