By Angela O'rand, John C Henretta
Within the usa, older populations convey the top degrees of monetary inequality of all age teams. throughout all complicated societies, the inequalities saw in older populations stem from structural and person procedures that differentiate the existence classes of ladies and males and yield specific styles of monetary inequality in maturity and outdated age.Age and Inequality examines the structural and person bases of inequality and getting older within the usa, specially in fresh a long time. The interaction of the employment process with private and non-private social coverage platforms operates to constitution the shapes of labor careers and the styles of go out from those careers in past due maturity and previous age.Gender inequality around the existence path is a vital part of age inequality. hard work marketplace constitution, country rules, and existence direction elements resembling fertility and the department of loved ones exertions systematically differentiate men’s and women’s paintings careers.Aging and retirement within the twenty-first century bring up matters relating to public welfare and marketplace guidelines affecting hard work exits and source of revenue help structures over the subsequent part century. Angela O’Rand and John Henretta contemplate the results of the altering place of work and altering public rules for girls and males.
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Extra info for Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways Through Later Life
The earliest theories (Titmuss 1958) were based on the "logic of industrialism" thesis or the related "logic of capitalism" thesis, which generally posits that welfare structures are inevitable outgrowths of the market and hence are residual structures developed to preserve and reproduce market relations. Later theories have either revised or refuted earlier ones and have adopted a diverse array of institutional arguments for the development of these structures, including class coalitions (Esping-Andersen 1990), relative class power (Myles w Cohorts, Inequality, and Social Change 1989), the social organization of production (Quadagno 1984), "structured polity" (Skocpol 1992), and patriarchy (Orloff 1993; Sainsbury 1996).
On the other hand, there are some results suggesting the possibility of cumulative advantage. Bernheim and Scholz's (1993) results, discussed above, indicate that more educated households accumulate more assets iii relation to income than do less educated households. This finding is consistent with earlier research showing that, controlling for long-term earnings, those with greater schooling have higher levels of assets (Henretta and Campbell 1978; Campbell and Henretta 1980; Kotlikoff, Spivak, £ind Summers 1982).
The new pensions are much more individualized instruments for retirement saving that depend more on workers' volition and contributions than in the past. Thus by the 1990s men and women who retire with private pensions receive highly variable annuity levels. This variability produces more inequality. The variability in pathways to inequality in retirement through workplace structures are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4. Changes in pensions are discussed further in Chapter 5.