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By Pat Hawker, D.E. Cole

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Alternatively, to achieve the same target BER, BASK requires higher transmitted energy than BPSK. , twice as much) transmitted energy than BPSK. As we will see throughout this section, the probability of error is usually expressed in terms of the ratio of the average energy per bit (Eb) to the noise power spectral density (N0). From an RF system design perspective, however, the signalto-noise ratio (SNR) is more commonly used. The SNR, gs, is the ratio of the signal power, PS, to the noise power in a given bandwidth, PN, so gs = PS/PN.

3. 13. 3. 11. The signal space diagram is a very useful tool for describing the signals. 24) The distance between any two signals is useful for quantifying the similarity ­between two signals, so two signals that are very close to each other in the signal space diagram are very similar. As we will see later in the chapter, the receiver’s ability to distinguish between two signals depends on how close together they are. Ideally we want to select our transmitted signals so they are as far apart as possible.

33 for different values of a. When a = 0, the signal has a bandwidth of exactly 1/T. 34. We see that the pulse shape is noncausal, so in practice it cannot be used. However, by truncating the pulse shape to a few symbol periods and delaying it, it is possible to use an approximate version of these rootraised cosine pulse shapes. 33 Raised cosine shape of the frequency response of the combined transmit and receive filters. tion will introduce some sidelobes. 2 is used in practice. Although the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is an important characteristic of a modulation scheme, it is also important to use the spectrum efficiently.

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